26th October ­— 28th November, 2009

Birding

An Ecuadorian, Boris Herrera, as a guide. Boris was generally very good and found an astonishing amount of good birds for me and he is especially strong on songs and calls. I did feel that he was a little weak on raptor identification and thought that his time management could be improved but he is a relatively young guide and I am sure will improve in the future.

Background

I had some time to fill with no work available in the latter part of 2009 and decided it was time I learnt some Spanish whilst trying to do some birding at the same time. There are Spanish schools throughout Latin America (and of course Spain) but the logical choice seemed to be Quito. I knew people who had been to Spanish school in Ecuador before and there are plenty of good birding areas close to the capital. In hindsight Ecuador proved a very good choice for studying Spanish as Ecuadorians speak clearly and are easier to understand than e.g. Argentineans. Other good countries to learn Spanish in would be Peru and Bolivia.

Spanish School

I booked four weeks of super-intensive (40 hours per week) classes with the Academia Latinoamericana through www.applelanguages.com. There are masses of choices of schools in Quito and I have no idea how the Academia Latinoamericana rates compared to others however the teaching staff were very friendly and overall I found the standard of tuition very good and I would recommend the school. I found after the first week that 8 hours Spanish a day was too much and so switched to 6 hours of individual lessons which was more manageable. I stayed in the school's residence which was convenient but most students stay with private families, which probably helps more with practicing Spanish as you learn.

Timing

I had no choice in the timing of my visit, Ecuador offers good birding at all times but I did note the following; November is not great for subtropical to temperate forest and Paramo as many birds have commenced nesting and are unresponsive to playback, additionally flocks are smaller and harder to find. It was an excellent time to visit Shaime and Yankuam with very large and active flocks throughout the day. June/July can be very good in the Amazon with lots of fruiting trees, July is also the best time to try for Black-breasted Puffleg at Yanacocha. December and January are probably to be avoided as it is the rainy season and also `winter' and certainly birding at higher elevations would be difficult and unpleasant during this period. Thus February-March and July-October probably represent the optimum times for a visit, especially the former.

Itinerary

Day 1 ­ Arrive Guayaquil, drive to Cajas National Park with roadside birding in lowlands near Guayaquil and brief stop at Manglares Churute reserve. Cajas National Park including Lake Llaviucu. Overnight near Giron. Day 2 ­ Yunguilla Reserve in morning before driving to Villcabamba via Cuenca and Loja. Late afternoon birding near Villcabamba. Overnight Villcabamba. Day 3 ­ Cerro Toledo, Tapichalaca Reserve and Valladolid. Overnight Tapichalaca Lodge. Day 4 ­ Quebrada Honda, Tapichalaca and Valladolid. Overnight Tapichalaca Lodge. Day 5 ­ Jocotoco feeders (Tapichalaca) and Yangana. Drive to Yankuam Lodge via Loja and Zamora with roadside birding from El Dorado to Yankuam. Overnight Yankuam Lodge. Day 6 ­ Yankuam Lodge to Shaime along the Nangaritza River, all day Shaime and return to Yankuam Lodge. Overnight Yankuam Lodge. Day 7 ­ Yankuam, Paquisha (Cordillera del Condor) and Copalinga. Overnight Copalinga Lodge. Day 8 ­ Old Zamora Road, Copalinga. Drive to Catamayo (Loja Airport) via Zamora and Loja with birding near airport and flight to Quito. Weekend 1; Saturday ­ Antisana, Papallacta and Guango Lodge. Overnight Guango Lodge. Sunday ­ Guango Lodge and Papallacta then drive back to Quito with stop in suburb of Cumbaya. Weekend 2; Friday ­ Drive to San Isidro Lodge, nightbirding in lodge grounds. Overnight San Isidro. Saturday ­ Morning on Guacamayos Ridge, drive to Loreto Road with birding stops. Afternoon along Loreto Road. Late afternoon and nightbirding Guacamayos. Nightbirding San Isidro. Overnight San Isidro Lodge.

Sunday ­ Morning around San Isidro. Afternoon stops at Bermeja and near Guango Lodge on drive back to Quito. Weekend 3; Friday ­ Drive to Bellavista Lodge in the Tandayapa Valley. Overnight at Bellavista. Saturday ­ Morning in Bellavista area including visit to Tony Nunnery's property. Afternoon at Milpe. Overnight at Bellavista Lodge. Sunday ­ Morning at Paz de las Aves. Afternoon at Mindo Loma, Nanca Jatunmi, Bellavista and NonoLindo Road before drive back to Quito.

Sites

Manglares Churute Reserve ­ Located just outside Guayaquil along the Cuenca road this reserve hosts a number of interesting species, most importantly Jet Antbird and Pacific Royal-Flycatcher. My visit was very brief due to time constraints, additionally it was raining heavily and the mosquitoes were some of the worst I've ever encountered. The surrounding degraded wetlands and scrub can be viewed from the main road and are surprisingly birdy. The area is noteworthy for Horned Screamer and Pearl and Whitetailed Kite. Cajas National Park ­ The park contains the endemic Violet-throated Metaltail as well as being one of the few places in Ecuador for Tit-like Dacnis. Search the patches of polylepis forest for both species. Lake Llaviucu is at lower elevations on the descent into Cuenca (the turning is a sharp one on the right and easy to miss). Note the gates to the lake shut at 5pm. Ecuadorian Rail is easy here. Yunguilla Reserve ­ This is a Jocotoco Foundation reserve located close to the town of Giron. It is the place to see the critically endangered and endemic Pale-headed Brush-Finch. Also present is Bufffronted Owl but is only calling seasonally. Cuenca to Loja Road ­ There are numerous patches of attractive looking forest along this road worthy of exploration to break the journey. Crescent-faced Antpitta might be present at the right elevations. Cerro Toledo ­ This excellent area is located near Yangana, the turn off is shortly after exiting the town on the left as you head towards Tapichalaca. There is good forest through a range of habitats right up to the treeline. Neblina Metaltail is the speciality here along with Rainbow-bearded Thornbill and Masked Mountain-Tanager and Red-faced Parrot are also present. Tapichalaca ­ This Jocotoco Foundation reserve is part of the gargantuan Podocarpus National Park. There is a comfortable lodge to stay in and the area is worthy of at least a couple of days exploration. The lodge hummingbird feeders attract Little Sunangel amongst others. The highlight of a visit of course is Jocotoco Antpitta, a pair of which are habitually fed near the lodge, Chestnut-naped Antpitta sometimes also comes to worms depending on how territorial the Jocotocos are at the time of visiting. The trail down Quebrada Honda is steep and difficult to bird however some really good birds occur her such as Bicoloured Antvireo, Red-hooded Tanager, Dusky Piha and Chestnut-crested Cotinga. Also bird the road down from the lodge towards Valladolid. There are nestboxes here for the endemic Whitenecked Parakeet and the birds are in the area year round often roosting in the boxes when not breeding. Valladolid ­ Is just a short drive from Tapichalaca but at much lower elevations a completely different suite of species is present. Forest patches are small and fragmented however the scarce Straw-backed Tanager should be looked for here. Yangana ­ The town lies between Tapichalaca and Loja, patches of scrub around the town hold the endemic Loja Hummingbird (an unofficial split from Amazilia) and the near-endemic Loja Tyrannulet (another unofficial split from Golden-faced Tyrannulet). El Dorado to Yankuam Lodge ­ The road to Yankuam has many roadside birding opportunities but particularly good is the stretch from the village of El Dorado to Yankuam (a distance of 47km). Blackbilled Seed-Finch is a bit of a speciality close to El Dorado. Yankuam Lodge ­ The lodge garden offers some decent birding however the hummingbird feeders were rather disappointing. A better bet is to cross the river at the ferry and bird the road on the other side of the river on foot. The forest here provided us with a very good flock and many new birds. The lodge is situated on the Nangaritza River along which you have to go by boat to reach Shaime. The journey itself is scenically stunning but offers limited birding as the current is rapid however it is possible to see Wattled Guan. Shaime ­ Located in the foothills of the Cordillera del Condor this site is the easiest place in the world to see Orange-throated Tanager (until recently considered a Peruvian endemic). The site is also good for Cinnamon Neopipo and there is an Oilbird cave too. However in truth there is a much wider variety of species and further exploration may well yield a few more new Ecuadorian species. When the flocks are active here as they were when I visited at least a couple of day's exploration would be worthwhile. Paquisha ­ This site in the Cordillera del Condor is a short drive from the village of El Dorado, turn right when leaving from Yankuam (and not left back to Zamora). Paquisha is just 8km, drive straight through the town onto a dirt track which winds up into the Cordillera and eventually peters out into a path. I had only a short time here but there was enough evidence to suggest the area could be very rewarding. Zamora ­ Flowers in the town often attract male Spangled Coquette. Copalinga Lodge ­ The lodge grounds can be very good for birding and the hummingbird feeders are also good at the right time of year (when Green Violetear is not around). The owner recommended a September visit but February-March are also good. Coppery-chested Jacamar and Black-streaked Puffbird are easy on the nearby entrance path to the Bombascero Reserve. I did not explore the area further. Copalinga is just a few minutes outside Zamora.

Old Zamora Road ­ Whilst the new Loja to Zamora road has drastically cut journey times it is practically impossible to stop and bird along. The old road is still driveable and is accessed on the right immediately on leaving Zamora; the first 10 ­ 15kms or so offer the best birding. Look in particular for Blue-browed Tanager and Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater. Catamayo ­ Arid scrub near Loja Airport hosts a suite of species with a Tumbesian flavour and Loja Tyrannulet also occurs here. Antisana ­ The paramo around Antisana volcano offers good birding opportunities just 45 minutes drive from the capital. The endemic Ecuadorian Hillstar is easy to find however males are far from abundant. Look for the large orange flowers on the track towards the base of the volcano. Andean Condor and the endemic race and potential future split of Black-faced Ibis follow cattle herds and sheep flocks respectively. Note a permit to drive into the main birding area is required in advance. Papallacta ­ This extensive area is located along the Amazonian trunk road around 1.5 hours east of Quito. Bird the patches of white elfin forest near the pass, the area around the radio masts holds Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe, the track beyond the spa resort in the village leads to good forest where Masked Mountain-Tanager occurs near the treeline. Crescent-faced Antpitta has also been discovered here recently but necessitates an early visit, the gate is guarded and some individuals can be difficult to get past. Also bird the forest next to Papallacta Lake along the old road. Guango Lodge ­ This is a convenient place to stay for Papallacta located just 15 minutes drive further east. The hummingbird feeders here are amongst the best in the world with Mountain Avocetbill, Gorgeted Woodstar and Tourmaline Sunangel some of the star attractions. Slaty Brush-Finch is another local speciality on the trails in the near vicinity along with a range of other good species. Cumbaya ­ This is essentially a suburb of Quito around 15km east, patches of `forest' are good for interandean valley specialists such as Scrub Tanager and Western Emerald and Brown Violetear occurs here seasonally. San Isidro Lodge ­ Is about 40 minutes further east from Guango Lodge. The lodge grounds and network of local trails host a wide range of species including Wattled Guan and Crested Quetzal. The hummingbird feeders are active but species are similar to Guango. One feature is the many species around the lights in the grounds hunting insects in the early morning that were attracted there the previous night. A habituated White-bellied Antpitta comes to worms here and San Isidro is also good for nightbirds with Black-banded Owl a regular at the lights. It provides a good base to explore the surrounding area too. Guacamayos ­ Bird the ridge trail by the radio masts at the pass for a host of good species including Greater Scythebill. Andean Potoo is regular here at dusk. White-tailed Hillstar occurs on the Amazonian slope of the Cordillera. Bird all the way down the road but take care when parking the car on the side of the road, there are no official places to stop.

Loreto Road ­ Turn left at the base of the Guacamayos Cordillera signed to Loreto. Like the Guacamayos road stopping is difficult but check all patches of roadside forest for flocks. Bird species are completely different to San Isidro and Guacamyos due to the lower altitude. Bellavista ­ The lodge is situated towards the top end of the Tandayapa valley along the old main road. The area is covered in superb forest and there are numerous birding opportunities all along the road as well as many trails (which I did not have time to explore). The lodge staff are friendly and helpful and will be able to give you information on recent sightings. Common Potoo is present nightly in the car park and the hummingbird feeders are noteworthy for Gorgeted Sunangel. Tony Nunnery's ­ Tony's property is situated just down from the road from Bellavista however it is practically invisible from the road and not advertised. He welcomes visitors for a $5 fee but don't arrive before 10am. He has reforested an old cow pasture and created some brilliant habitat as the 391 species recorded there (in 11 years) testifies. The highlight is the multitudinous hummingbird feeders however these days there are no (regular) species there that can't be seen at other sites too. It is still a relaxing place to spend a couple of hours, there is a good view to look for raptors and Tony might also have some good local information too. Milpe ­ This site is next to the main road about 45 minutes further west from Bellavista, at just over 1,000m though the species are completly different. There are hummingbird and fruit feeders around the visitor centre where Green Thorntail, Green-crowned Brilliant, Green-crowned Woodnymph and Whitewhiskered Hermit are regular. There is also a Club-winged Manakin lek here and the forest trails hold many other species. Paz de las Aves ­ This site needs little introduction as it is of course the property of Angel Paz, the man who began the amazing process of feeding Antpittas. Whilst I was their Giant, Moustached and Yellowbreasted Antpitta were regularly coming in but Dark-backed Wood-Quail was very irregular. The fruit feeders were also not busy as there were many fruiting trees in the forest however normally Olivaceous Piha and Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager can be expected amongst others. The morning starts with a look at a small Andean Cock-of-the-Rock lek from a hide, progresses to the fruit feeders and then to the Antpittas. The Paz family can normally find an Orange-breasted Fruiteater too. Finally a look at the hummingbird feeders where Empress Brilliant is regular before coffee and empanadas. The whole experience finishes around 11am but sometimes it may take longer to get the Antpittas in. Mindo Loma ­ This property is situated by the main road close to Mindo. The hummingbird feeders are very active and normally so are the fruit feeders where Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager is regular. The forest looks nice and holds Hoary Puffleg. This rare species favours humid Quebrada's and is tricky to find as it hardly ever comes to feeders. Ask the proprietor's at the house for directions to look for this species.

Nanca Jatunmi ­ This site used to be a good one however recently the forest has new owners and has been somewhat `altered'. We still found a nice flock though visiting now is probably not recommended. Nono-Lindo Road ­ This is the road that you would normally take from Yanacocha to the Tandayapa Valley if doing a more complete west slope trip. It passes through good forest and towards the Tandayapa village end is good for Beautiful Jay. I did not really explore it though.

Species

This list follows Clements 6.3.2 in terms of naming and systematics but includes a number of splits not recognised therein. Andean Tinamou (Nothoprocta pentlandii) ­ One was surprisingly seen in the middle of the road between Cuenca and Loja. The species is very rare in Ecuador. Horned Screamer (Anhima cornuta) ­ Five seen roadside near Manglares Churute Reserve. Torrent Duck (Merganetta armata) ­ Up to six on the Rio Guango adjacent to Guango Lodge. Yellow-billed Pintail (Anas georgica) ­ Recorded only in Cajas NP. Andean Teal (Anas andium) ­ Small numbers in Cajas NP, Antisana and Papallacta. This form is not recognised by Clements. Andean Ruddy-Duck (Oxyura ferruginea) ­ Recorded only in Cajas NP. Not recognised by Clements. Speckled Chachalaca (Ortalis guttata) ­ Recorded along the Nangaritza River and near Copalinga Lodge. Andean Guan (Penelope montagnii) ­ Singles near Guango Lodge and at Guacamayos. Wattled Guan (Chamaepetes goudotii) ­ Singles seen along the Nangaritza River and at San Isidro where commonly heard. Sickle-winged Guan (Chamaepetes goudotii) ­ Singles at Copalinga, San Isidro, Bellavista and Paz de las Aves. Dark-backed Wood-Quail (Odontophorus melanonotus) ­ Heard only at Paz de las Aves although Angel's brother saw them whilst waiting for us. Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) ­ Seen in the vicinity of Manglares Churute. American Great-Egret (Ardea egretta) ­ Seen near Manglares Churute and Zamora. Not recognised by Clements. Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) ­ Seen roadside near Manglares Churute.

Western Cattle-Egret (Bubulcus ibis) Seen roadside near Manglares Churute and in the Mindo area. Not recognised by Clements. Striated Heron (Butorides striata) ­ One on the Nangaritza River. Black-faced Ibis (Theristicus melanopis) ­ One at Antisana. The endemic Ecuadorian race, branickii, is geographically isolated and may warrant splitting as Ecuadorian Ibis. Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) ­ Widely recorded. Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) ­ Widely recorded. Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes melambrotus) ­ Small numbers in the Shaime and Yankuam areas. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) ­ Two at Antisana. The species is rapidly declining in Ecuador and now rare. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) ­ One roadside near Manglares Churute. Recent research suggests that more than one species is involved globally. Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) ­ Two at Shaime. Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus) ­ Widely recorded below 1,500m. White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) ­ One near Manglares Churute. The species is very local in Ecuador. Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) ­ Common roadside near Manglares Churute. Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea) ­ Common in the Shaime and Yankuam areas. Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) ­ A few in the Antisana and Papallacta areas. Plain-breasted Hawk (Accipiter ventralis) ­ Recorded at Tapichalaca and San Isidro. Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens) ­ One at Yankuam. Barred Hawk (Leucopternis princeps) ­ A pair soaring at San Isidro. This species is regularly seen here. Also heard at Tony's and Paz de las Aves. Great Black-Hawk (Buteogallus urubitinga) ­ Three seen roadside near Manglares Churute. Savanna Hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis) ­ Two roadside near Manglares Churute. Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris) ­ Recorded at Shaime, Guacamayos, Loreto Road and Bellavista.

Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus) ­ Seen at Tapichalaca and along the Old Zamora Road. Variable Hawk (Buteo polyosoma) ­ One immature at Papallacta. Black-and-chestnut Eagle (Spizaetus isidori) ­ I considered a raptor at Cerro Toledo to clearly be this species, although Boris disagreed. Collared Forest-Falcon (Micrastur semitorquatus) ­ Heard only at San Isidro. Black Caracara (Daptrius ater) ­ Recorded along the Nangaritza River and at Shaime. Carunculated Caracara (Phalcoboenus carunculatus) ­ Very common at Antisana and also recorded in Cajas NP and at Papallacta. American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) ­ Small numbers recorded at various locations. Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) ­ Six at Antisana including two which appeared to be recently fledged juveniles. Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis) ­ Singles at Bellavista and Tony's. Boris also saw one at Shaime. Rufous-sided Crake (Laterallus melanophaius) ­ Heard calling roadside near Yankuam. Ecuadorian Rail (Rallus aequatorialis) ­ Two seen and several heard at Lago Llaviucu, Cajas NP. Clements lumps this form in Virginia Rail. Chestnut-headed Crake (Anurolimnas castaneiceps) ­ Heard only at Shaime. Andean Coot (Fulica ardesiaca) ­ Recorded only in Cajas NP. Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) ­ A large flock roadside near Manglares Churute. Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana) ­ A couple roadside near Manglares Churute. Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens) ­ A few at Antisana. Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) ­ One on the Nangaritza River. Baird's Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii) ­ A small flock on the paramo at Antisana. Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe (Attagis gayi) ­ A responsive pair close to the radio masts at Papallacta pass. Andean Gull (Larus serranus) ­ Recorded in Cajas NP, Antisana and, more surprisingly, at Papallacta Lake.

Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) ­ A small flock over the road near Quito and then common at Bellavista. Scaled Pigeon (Patagioenas speciosa) ­ Three at Shaime. Plumbeous Pigeon (Patagioenas plumbea) ­ Four in the Valladolid area and then common at Bellavista and Paz de las Aves. Ruddy Pigeon (Patagioenas subvinacea) ­ One at Shaime. Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) ­ Common around Quito. Croaking Ground-Dove (Columbina cruziana) ­ A few around Cajas NP and Yunguilla. Black-winged Ground-Dove (Metriopelia melanoptera) ­ Very common at Antisana. White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) ­ Widespread records. Pallid Dove (Leptotila pallid) ­ Heard only at Manglares Churute and Milpe. Grey-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla) ­ One at Shaime and three at Copalinga. Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove (Geotrygon purpurata) ­ A calling bird at Milpe appeared to respond to playback by popping out on the path for superb views. Clements lumps this form in Sapphire QuailDove. White-throated Quail-Dove (Geotrygon frenata) ­ Two seen at Tapichalaca where a feeding station is set up for this species. Also flushed from a trail at San Isidro and the road at Bellavista. Golden-plumed Parakeet (Leptosittaca branickii) ­ One in flight at Cerro Toledo. White-necked Parakeet (Pyrrhura albipectus) ­ Nine came into roost at the nestboxes close to the road at the bottom of the Tapichalaca Reserve and four seen in flight on the Old Zamora Road. There is a lick for this species near Copalinga Lodge. Endemic to Ecuador. Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga wagleri) Two in flight near Valladolid. Red-masked Parakeet (Aratinga erythrogenys) ­ Two seen at Manglares Churute and heard at Catamayo. White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalmus) ­ Four in flight along the road to Yankuam. Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius) ­ Four in flight at Shaime.

Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis) ­ One in the garden of the hostel near Giron and a pair at Catamayo. Cobalt-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris cyanoptera) ­ Heard only at Shaime. Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus) ­ Fairly common at Shaime, Yankuam and Loreto Road. Red-billed Parrot (Pionus sordidus) ­ Widespread sightings. White-capped Parrot (Pionus seniloides) Recorded at Tapichalaca and Guacamayos. Clements lumps this form in Speckle-faced Parrot. Scaly-naped Amazon (Amazona mercenaria) ­ Recorded at Tapichalaca and Guacamayos. Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) ­ Singles on the Loreto Road and at San Isidro and Bellavista. Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) ­ Widespread at lower elevations. White-throated Screech-Owl (Megascops albogularis) ­ Heard only on the Guacayamos Ridge. Peruvian Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium peruanum) ­ A single at Manglares Churute and a pair at Yangana. Black-banded Owl (Ciccaba huhula) ­ The `San Isidro' Owl heard only at San Isidro. Rufous-banded Owl (Ciccaba albitarsis) ­ Several heard at San Isidro only but very unresponsive. Rufous-bellied Nighthawk (Lurocalis rufiventris) ­ Two seen at the Guacamayos Pass. Pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis) ­ Two along the road to Yankuam and also heard at Copalinga and Bellavista. Band-winged Nightjar (Caprimulgus longirostris) ­ Two spotlighted at Tapichalaca from the road. Blackish Nightjar (Caprimulgus nigrescens) ­ A few near to Yankuam and also seen very well at Copalinga. Swallow-tailed Nightjar (Uropsalis segmentata) ­ A pair at Papallacta Pass. Lyre-tailed Nightjar (Uropsalis lyra) ­ A single spotlighted on a road cutting just west of San Isidro. Common Potoo (Nyctibius griseus) ­ A single in the car park at Bellavista is a regular bird. Also Heard at Yankuam. Andean Potoo (Nyctibius maculosus) ­ Heard only at the top of Quebrada Honda at Tapichalaca where one individual is regular.

Spot-fronted Swift (Cypseloides cherriei) ­ At least 40 at Bellavista and a lifer for Roger. This species is frequent here but very hard to separate from Chestnut-collared Swift unless the call is known and the two species often fly together. Chestnut-collared Swift (Streptoprocne rutila) Recorded at Cerro Toledo, San Isidro and Bellavista. White-collared Swift (Streptoprocne zonaris) ­ Widespread records. Grey-rumped Swift (Chaetura cinereiventris) ­ Recorded in at Shaime, Yankuam and Old Zamora Road. Pale-tailed Barbthroat (Threnetes niger) ­ A single at Shaime. White-whiskered Hermit (Phaethornis yaruqui) ­ Fairly common at Milpe and regular at the feeders too. Green Hermit (Phaethornis guy) ­ Seen at Yankuam Lodge (comes to the feeders) and Copalinga. Tawny-bellied Hermit (Phaethornis syrmatophorus) ­ Singles on the Guacamayos Ridge trail and at Bellavista, Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma. Grey-chinned Hermit (Phaethornis griseogularis) ­ Recorded at Yankuam and Old Zamora Road. Grey-breasted Sabrewing (Campylopterus largipennis) ­ A single at Yankuam Lodge where the species is dominant at the feeders. Napo Sabrewing (Campylopterus villaviscensio) ­ A male at Paquisha was a surprise find and a good record. Green Violetear (Colibri thalassinus) ­ Recorded at Tapichalaca, Copalinga, Old Zamora Road, San Isidro and Tony's. Sparkling Violetear (Colibri coruscans) ­ Seen at Cajas NP, Cumbaya, Quito, San Isidro and Tony's. Violet-headed Hummingbird (Klais guimeti) ­ Two along the Old Zamora Road; also occurs at Copalinga. Spangled Coquette (Lophornis stictolophus) ­ A female in Verbena in the car park at Copalinga where they are regular. This best chance to find a male appears to be in the town of Zamora itself. Wire-crested Thorntail (Popelairia popelairii) ­ A female at Copalinga frequenting Verbena. Green Thorntail (Discosura conversii) ­ Common at the feeders at Milpe. Western Emerald (Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus) ­ Common at Cumbaya and Tony's. Green-crowned Woodnymph (Thalurania fannyi) ­ Common at the feeders at Milpe.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata) ­ Singles at Shaime and Yankuam. Golden-tailed Sapphire (Chrysuronia oenone) ­ Females appeared to be common at Paquisha with another along the Old Zamora Road. Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilia amazilia) ­ Recorded from Manglares Churute, Yunguilla, near Villcabamba and Catamayo. Loja Hummingbird (Amazilia alticola) ­ Three seen around Yangana which is the best place to see this form. Not recognized by Clements it becomes an Ecuadorian endemic when split. Andean Emerald (Amazilia franciae) ­ A single roadside between Cuenca and Loja and then common at Bellavista, Tony's, Paz de las Aves, Milpe and Mindo Loma. Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata) ­ Recorded in the Shaime and Yankuam areas. Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (Amazilia tzacatl) ­ Common at Tony's, Milpe, Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma. Speckled Hummingbird (Adelomyia melanogenys) ­ Common at the feeders at Tapichalaca, Guango, San Isidro, Bellavista, Tony's, Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma. Fawn-breasted Brilliant (Heliodoxa rubinoides) ­ A single on the feeders at Tapichalaca where the species is scarce. Many at the feeders at San Isidro, Bellavista, Tony's, Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma. Green-crowned Brilliant (Heliodoxa jacula) ­ Common at the feeders at Milpe. Empress Brilliant (Heliodoxa imperatrix) ­ A single briefly at Tony's but much easier at Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma feeders. Violet-fronted Brilliant (Heliodoxa leadbeateri) ­ A single along the Old Zamora Road. This species also comes to feeders at Tapichalaca seasonally. White-tailed Hillstar (Urochroa bougueri) ­ Three roadside on the Amazonian slope of the Cordillera de Guacamayos. Buff-tailed Coronet (Boissonneaua flavescens) ­ Regular at the feeders at Guango and very common at Bellavista, Tony's, Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma. Chestnut-breasted Coronet (Boissonneaua matthewsii) ­ Very common at feeders at Tapichalaca, Guango and San Isidro. Velvet-purple Coronet (Boissonneaua jardini) ­ Common at the feeders at Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma.

Shining Sunbeam (Aglaeactis cupripennis) ­ Single at Cajas NP and then a few in the Papallacta area. Ecuadorian Hillstar (Oreotrochilus chimborazo) ­ Common at Antisana although only two males seen. A single at Papallacta where the species is more scarce. The species is near-endemic to Ecuador and is called Chimborazo Hillstar by Clements. Mountain Velvetbreast (Lafresnaya lafresnayi) ­ Singles at Cajas NP and between Cuenca and Loja. More regular in the Papallacta and Guango areas and comes to the feeders occasionally at the latter. Bronzy Inca (Coeligena coeligena) ­ A single at Paquisha was a surprise. Regular at the San Isidro feeders. Brown Inca (Coeligena wilsoni) ­ A single by the road to Cajas NP and then regular at Tony's, Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma feeders. Collared Inca (Coeligena torquata) ­ Common at Tapichalaca, Guango, San Isidro, Bellavista and Tony's feeders. Buff-winged Starfrontlet (Coeligena lutetiae) ­ Regular at the Guango feeders. Also recorded at Cerro Toledo and Papallacta. Sword-billed Hummingbird (Ensifera ensifera) ­ A single at Cerro Toledo. Regular at the Guango feeders where it is an undoubted star attraction. Great Sapphirewing (Pterophanes cyanopterus) ­ Two females in the highest forest above Papallacta Spa Resort. Amethyst-throated Sunangel (Heliangelus amethysticollis) ­ Common at the Tapichalaca feeders. Gorgeted Sunangel (Heliangelus strophianus) ­ Small numbers at the feeders at Bellavista, strangely this species is generally absent at Tony's. Tourmaline Sunangel (Heliangelus exortis) A speciality of the Guango feeders where it is common. Little Sunangel (Heliangelus exortis) ­ Common at the Tapichalaca feeders (also called Flame-throated Sunangel). Glowing Puffleg (Eriocnemis vestitus) ­ A couple seen near the treeline at Cerro Toledo. Sapphire-vented Puffleg (Eriocnemis luciani) ­ A single at Lake Llaviucu, Cajas NP. Golden-breasted Puffleg (Eriocnemis mosquera) ­ A single at Cerro Toledo and also seen at the Guango feeders where the species is regular in small numbers.

Hoary Puffleg (Haplophaedia lugens) ­ One at Mindo Loma in a humid Quebrada in the forest, a scarce and difficult species that rarely visits feeders. Purple-bibbed Whitetip (Urosticte benjamini) ­ Regular at Tony's feeders. Booted Racket-tail (Ocreatus underwoodii) ­ A single of the buff-booted peruanus race on the Guacamayos Ridge trail. The white-booted melanantherus race was common at Tony's feeders. Black-tailed Trainbearer (Lesbia victoriae) A couple at Antisana, single at Papallacta and two in Quito. Green-tailed Trainbearer (Lesbia nuna) ­ Two at Cerro Toledo. Purple-backed Thornbill (Ramphomicron microrhynchum) ­ A single male in forest above the Papallacta spa resort. Tyrian Metaltail (Metallura tyrianthina) ­ Two at Cerro Toledo and common at Guango feeders and Papallacta. Viridian Metaltail (Metallura williami) ­ Singles at Cerro Toledo, between Cuenca and Loja and three in the highest forest above the Papallacta spa resort. Violet-throated Metaltail (Metallura baroni) ­ At least a couple in Cajas NP. The species is endemic to Ecuador and has a tiny range almost exclusively within Cajas, fortunately it is common in remnant patches of Polylepis forest and responds well to playback. Neblina Metaltail (Metallura odomae) ­ At least a couple just below the treeline at Cerro Toledo where the species is easy to find. It has a very restricted range in southern Ecuador and northern Peru. Rufous-capped Thornbill (Chalcostigma ruficeps) ­ At least two at Tapichalaca. Look for this species by the road at the pass above the lodge. Blue-mantled Thornbill (Chalcostigma stanleyi) ­ Very common in Cajas NP in Polylepis. Also one at Papallacta. Rainbow-bearded Thornbill (Chalcostigma herrani) ­ Common just below the treeline at Cerro Toledo. Mountain Avocetbill (Opisthoprora euryptera) ­ A single came very briefly to the feeders at Guango. It is a scarce but regular visitor to the feeders here. It may be easier to find along the trails in the area where it favours small, pink, tubular flowers. Long-tailed Sylph (Aglaiocercus kingi) ­ Numerous records; common at Tapichalaca, Guango and San Isidro feeders.

Violet-tailed Sylph (Aglaiocercus coelestis) ­ Common at the feeders at Tony's, Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma. Wedge-billed Hummingbird (Schistes geoffroyi) ­ This scarce species is a cheat which mostly feeds by piercing flowers at the base to get to the nectar. It rarely comes to feeders but a female was regularly visiting flowers in Tony's garden. Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx auritus) ­ A single at Shaime. Long-billed Starthroat (Heliomaster longirostris) ­ Singles in Giron and Valladolid. Purple-throated Woodstar (Calliphlox mitchellii) ­ Common at feeders at Bellavista, Milpe, Tony's, Paz de las Aves and Mindo Loma. Amethyst Woodstar (Calliphlox amethystine) ­ A single female at Paquisha. To me the bird looked much more like a White-bellied Woodstar but based on range this was the only possible Woodstar. Purple-collared Woodstar (Myrtis fanny) ­ Common at Yunguilla and heard at Catamayo. White-bellied Woodstar (Chaetocercus mulsant) ­ Common at the Tapichalaca and Guango feeders. Little Woodstar (Chaetocercus bombus) ­ A single female coming to flowers in Zamora. Gorgeted Woodstar (Chaetocercus heliodor) ­ Thee different birds came briefly to feeders at Guango. The species is uncommon here; it may also be seen at the San Isidro feeders but is again uncommon. Also a single female briefly at Tony's where the species is best regarded as rarity. Amazonian White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis) ­ A single at Yankuam; this split is not recognized by Clements. Blue-crowned Trogon (Trogon curucui) ­ A single female at Yankuam. Masked Trogon (Trogon personatus) ­ A couple at Bellavista and singles at Paz de las Aves and on the Nono-Lindo road. Ecuadorian Trogon (Trogon mesurus) ­ A single at Manglares Churute. Clements lumps this form in Black-tailed Trogon. Golden-headed Quetzal (Pharomachrus auriceps) ­ Two in Quebrada Honda, Tapichalaca and then common around San Isidro. Also heard at Bellavista and seen at Paz de las Aves. Crested Quetzal (Pharomachrus antisianus) ­ Surprisingly common around San Isidro with at least three pairs seen in mixed flocks coming to fruiting trees. Also a couple at Paz de las Aves coming to a fruiting tree.

Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota) ­ A single found in dry scrub near Villcabamba. Highland Motmot (Momotus aequatorialis) ­ A pair calling with one seen at San Isidro. Early in the morning the species can be found in the lodge grounds hunting insects attracted to the lights overnight. Broad-billed Motmot (Trogon personatus) ­ Heard only at Milpe. Either this species or Rufous Motmot was reportedly visiting the fruit feeders here. Ringed Kingfisher (Megaceryle torquata) ­ Three roadside near Manglares Churute and two along the Nangaritza River. Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona) ­ One perched on wires by the road south of Zamora. Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle Americana) ­ Three along the Nangaritza River. White-whiskered Puffbird (Malacoptila panamensis) ­ One at Manglares Churute. Black-streaked Puffbird (Malacoptila fulvogularis) ­ One along the entrance path to Bombascero Reserve close to Copalinga. White-faced Nunbird (Hapaloptila castanea) ­ Heard only at Berenja, near San Isidro. The species should be looked for at San Isidro/Guacamayos, Bellavista and Paz de la Aves but is scarce and hard to find. Coppery-chested Jacamar (Galbula pastazae) ­ A pair along the entrance path to Bombascero Reserve close to Copalinga. Also heard at Guacamayos. Purplish Jacamar (Galbula chalcothorax) ­ A pair in a mixed flock at Yankuam was a nice bonus. Gilded Barbet (Capito auratus) ­ One heard along the Loreto Road. Lemon-throated Barbet (Eubucco richardsoni) ­ A single heard at Shaime. Red-headed Barbet (Eubucco bourcierii) ­ Singles at Paquisha and along the Old Zamora and Loreto Roads. Toucan Barbet (Semnornis ramphastinus) ­ Singles at Bellavista and Nanca Jatunmi. Andean Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus albivitta) ­ A single at Quebrada Honda of the dark throated cyanolaemus and at least six at San Isidro of the white throated albivitta race. These forms are lumped in Emerald Toucanet by Clements. Crimson-rumped Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus haematopygus) ­ Fairly common at Paz de las Aves.

Grey-breasted Mountain-Toucan (Andigena hypoglauca) ­ Four seen at Lago Llaviucu in Cajas NP and heard at a number of other sites. Plate-billed Mountain-Toucan (Andigena laminirostris) ­ Fairly common at Bellavista. This species is near-endemic to Ecuador. Black-billed Mountain-Toucan (Andigena nigrirostris) ­ Unfortunately heard only in the Guacamyos area. Pale-billed Aracari (Pteroglossus erythropygius) ­ A single at Milpe. This form is lumped in Collared Aracari by Clements but is practically an Ecuadorian endemic when considered separately. Golden-collared Toucanet (Selenidera reinwardtii) ­ Four in the large mixed flock at Yankuam. Black-mandibled Toucan (Ramphastos ambiguus) ­ A single heard along the Loreto Road. Choco Toucan (Ramphastos brevis) ­ Heard frequently around Milpe but never close. Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) ­ A single heard along the Loreto Road. Lafresnaye's Piculet (Picumnus lafresnayi) ­ Singles at Yankuam Lodge and along the Loreto Road. Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus) ­ Singles along the road to Yankum and at Shaime. Scarlet-backed Woodpecker (Veniliornis callonotus) ­ A single at Manglares Churute and a pair at Bellavista. Yellow-vented Woodpecker (Veniliornis dignus) ­ A single heard near the eastern base of the Cordillera del Condor and one seen well by the road just below Tony's. Bar-bellied Woodpecker (Veniliornis nigriceps) ­ A single in roadside forest not far from Guango Lodge. Smoky-brown Woodpecker (Veniliornis fumigatus) ­ A single in the large mixed flock at Yankuam. Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerines) ­ A single in the large mixed flock at Yankuam. Red-stained Woodpecker (Veniliornis affinis) ­ A single at Shaime. Golden-olive Woodpecker (Piculus rubiginosus) ­ Singles near Villcabamba and at Yangana. Crimson-mantled Woodpecker (Piculus rivolii) ­ Singles at Cerro Toledo, Guacamayos, Quito, Bellavista and Paz de las Aves. Powerful Woodpecker (Campephilus pollens) ­ Four seen at Bellavista.

Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Campephilus melanoleucos) ­ Recorded at Shaime and Yankuam. Guayaquil Woodpecker (Campephilus gayaquilensis) ­ A single at Milpe. Stout-billed Cinclodes (Cinclodes excelsior) ­ Common in the Antisana and Papallacta areas. Bar-winged Cinclodes (Cinclodes fuscus) ­ Common at Cajas NP, Antisana and Papallacta. Pacific Hornero (Furnarios cinnamomeus) ­ Very common at lower elevations in the west. Clements lumps this form in Pale-legged Hornero. Andean Tit-Spinetail (Leptasthenura andicola) ­ A pair at Antisana. White-chinned Thistletail (Schizoeaca fuliginosa) ­ Two at Papallacta. Mouse-coloured Thistletail (Schizoeaca griseomurina) ­ Two at the treeline at Cerro Toledo. Azara's Spinetail (Synallaxis azarae) ­ Widely recorded above 1,500m. Dark-breasted Spinetail (Synallaxis albigularis) ­ A pair at Shaime. Rufous Spinetail (Synallaxis unirufa) ­ A pair in Quebrada Honda, Tapichalaca, another pair at Paz de las Aves and a single at Bellavista. Slaty Spinetail (Synallaxis brachyura) ­ A single at Paz de las Aves. White-browed Spinetail (Hellmayrea gularis) Three in forest along the old road behind Papallacta Lake. Red-faced Spinetail (Cranioleuca erythrops) ­ Fairly common at Bellavista and Paz de las Aves. Ash-browed Spinetail (Cranioleuca curtata) ­ Pairs near Valladolid and along the Old Zamora Road. Streak-backed Canastero (Asthenes wyatti) ­ A couple of very elusive birds at Antisana. Many-striped Canastero (Asthenes flammulata) ­ One at Cajas and three at Papallacta. Orange-fronted Plushcrown (Metopothrix aurantiaca) ­ A pair in the large mixed flock at Yankuam. Equatorial Graytail (Xenerpestes singularis) ­ Two along the Old Zamora Road. Rusty-winged Barbtail (Premnornis guttuligera) ­ A single at Paz de las Aves was a good record. Spotted Barbtail (Premnoplex brunnescens) ­ Heard only at Guacamayos and San Isidro.

Pearled Treerunner (Margarornis squamiger) ­ Widespread records at higher elevations. Pacific Tuftedcheek (Pseudocolaptes johnsoni) ­ A single at Mindo Loma in a mixed flock. Clements lumps this form in Buffy Tuftedcheek. Streaked Tuftedcheek (Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii) ­ A couple at Tapichalaca and a single at Bellavista. Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia variegaticeps) ­ Singles at Milpe and Nanca Jatunmi. Montane Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia striaticollis) ­ A single along the Old Zamora Road. Lineated Foliage-gleaner (Syndactyla subalaris) ­ Heard a few times in the Tandayapa/Mindo area before finally seen at Mindo Loma. Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner (Philydor ruficaudatus) ­ A single at Shaime. Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor rufum) ­ Common at Milpe. Striped Treehunter (Thripadectes holostictus) ­ A nice pair showed at very close range at Bellavista. Flammulated Treehunter (Thripadectes flammulatus) ­ Heard only at Guacamayos. Plain Xenops (Xenops minutes) ­ Two at Shaime. Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilans) ­ Recorded from Tapichalaca, Shaime, Yankuam and Guacamayos. Tyrannine Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla tyrannina) ­ A single at San Isidro. Plain-brown Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) ­ Two at Yankuam. Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) ­ Recorded along the Old Zamora Road and at Gucamayos and San Isidro. Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Deconychura longicauda) ­ Two at Shaime. Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Glyphorynchus spirurus) ­ Singles at Shaime and Yankuam. Strong-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) ­ Heard only at Guacamayos, San Isidro and Bellavista before a group of four of these monsters showed very well at Paz de las Aves. Spotted Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus erythropygius) ­ Fairly common at Milpe. Olive-backed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus triangularis) ­ A single on the Loreto Road.

Montane Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger) ­ Recorded at Tapichalaca, Old Zamora Road, San Isidro, Bellavista and Paz de las Aves. Lineated Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes albolineatus) ­ A single in the large mixed flock at Yankuam was a very good record and a lifer in Ecuador for Boris. Greater Scythebill (Campylorhamphus pucherani) ­ A single on the Guacamayos Ridge trail in a mixed flock, this site is one of the best places to look for this hard to find species. Lined Antshrike (Thamnophilus tenuepunctatus) ­ Fairly common around Yankuam, Shaime and the Old Zamora Road. Uniform Antshrike (Thamnophilus unicolor) ­ Heard only at Paz de las Aves. Bicoloured Antvireo (Dysithamnus occidentalis) ­ A single male in Quebrada Honda. This is a good place to see this rare species although it is being recorded with increasing regularity at San Isidro and I glimpsed a couple of possibles there. Pygmy Antwren (Myrmotherula brachyuran) ­ A single at Shaime. White-flanked Antwren (Myrmotherula axillaris) ­ A pair at Shaime. Yellow-breasted Aantwren (Herpsilochmus axillaris) Heard only along the Loreto Road. Long-tailed Antbird (Drymophila caudate) ­ A couple at San Isidro. Blackish Antbird (Cercomacra nigrescens) ­ A pair along the Old Zamora Road. Jet Antbird (Cercomacra nigricans) ­ A single male at Manglares Churute. White-browed Antbird (Myrmoborus leucophrys) ­ A pair at Shaime. Black-faced Antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus) ­ A single at Shaime. Peruvian Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis peruviana) ­ Four at Shaime. Spot-winged Antbird (Schistocichla leucostigma) ­ A pair at Shaime. White-plumed Antbird (Pithys albifrons) ­ At least three attending a large antswarm at Shaime. Hairy-crested Antbird (Rhegmatorhina melanosticta) ­ A couple at the large antswarm at Shaime. There are few records from here and the birds looked quite different to that illustrated in the Birds of Ecuador and it may be that a different subspecies was involved.

Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevia) ­ A pair at Shaime. Rufous-breasted Antthrush (Formicarius rufipectus) ­ Heard only at Bellavista and Paz de las Aves. No birds were coming into worms at the latter. Barred Antthrush (Chamaeza mollissima) ­ One seen briefly crossing the Quebrada Honda trail, also heard at Guacamayos. Undulated Antpitta (Grallaria squamigera) ­ One seen at Lac Llaviucu and another flushed from the track at Cerro Toledo. Giant Antpitta (Grallaria gigantea) ­ Four came into worms at Paz de las Aves at two different places. Moustached Antpitta (Grallaria alleni) ­ Angel has two new individuals who come in very reliably and give much closer views than the previous individual. Scaled Antpitta (Grallaria guatemalensis) ­ Heard only at Paquisha. Plain-backed Antpitta (Grallaria haplonota) ­ Heard only at Yankuam. Chestnut-crowned Antpitta (Grallaria ruficapilla) ­ Common and easy to see at Yunguilla. This species also comes to worms at San Isidro lodge. Jocotoco Antpitta (Grallaria ridgelyi) ­ Panchito and Bevi performed immaculately at Tapichalaca. No longer an Ecuadorian endemic as the species is known from adjacent Peru. Chestnut-naped Antpitta (Grallaria nuchalis) ­ Heard regularly at Tapichalaca, Papallacta and Guango. This species sometimes comes to worms at Tapichalaca but Panchito and Bevi had a youngster when I was there and were not allowing the Chestnut-naped into feed. Yellow-breasted Antpitta (Grallaria flavotincta) ­ Willy came into worms at Paz de las Aves however Shakira gave a no-show. White-bellied Antpitta (Grallaria hypoleuca) ­ A single came to worms at San Isidro for good views. Rufous Antpitta (Grallaria rufula) ­ A single showed extremely well on the path to the Jocotoco feeding station at Tapichalaca. Frequently heard at a number of other sites. Tawny Antpitta (Grallaria quitensis) ­ A couple seen at Papallacta where the species is normally very easy to see. Slate-crowned Antpitta (Grallaricula nana) ­ One seen very briefly at Tapichalaca. Ash-coloured Tapaculo (Myornis senilis) ­ Heard only at Guacamayos.

Blackish Tapaculo (Scytalopus latrans) ­ Seen at Cajas NP, Tapichalaca and Papallacta. The race subcinereus at the former and latrans at the latter two sites. Long-tailed Tapaculo (Scytalopus micropterus) ­ A single seen without playback at San Isidro. Northern White-crowned Tapaculo (Scytalopus atratus) ­ A single seen at Paquisha. Nariño Tapaculo (Scytalopus vicinior) ­ Heard at Paz de las Aves but as playback is not allowed here there was little chance of seeing it. Spillmann's Tapaculo (Scytalopus spillmanni) ­ Heard only at Guacamayos. Remarkably one was feeding on an earth bank at Bellavista in full view. Chusquea Tapaculo (Scytalopus parkeri) ­ Fairly easy to see at Tapichalaca. A near-endemic. Paramo Tapaculo (Scytalopus canus) ­ One seen well at Papallacta. Ocellated Tapaculo (Acropternis orthonyx) ­ This stunning species was seen to 1m range at Cerro Toledo, an undoubted highlight. Also heard at Bellavista. Elegant Crescentchest (Melanopareia elegans) ­ One seen near Villcabamba. Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum) ­ Recorded at Manglares Churute, Yunguilla and Milpe. White-tailed Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus poecilocercus) ­ A pair near Valladolid and fairly common at Milpe and Nanca Jatunmi. White-banded Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus stictopterus) ­ Regularly recorded at Tapichalaca and Guango. White-throated Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus leucophrys) ­ Recorded from Cerro Toledo and Papallacta. Sulphur-bellied Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus minor) ­ A single along the Guacamayos Ridge trail. Boris also saw one at Tapichalaca. Black-crested Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes nigrocristatus) ­ A pair seen in roadside forest between Cuenca and Loja. Tufted Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes parulus) ­ Seen at Cajas NP, Antisana and Papallacta. Agile Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes agilis) ­ A single in forest above Papallacta spa resort. Tumbesian Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias tumbezana) ­ A single near Villcabamba. Clements lumps this form in Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet.

Forest Elaenia (Myiopagis gaimardii) ­ A single by the road on the way to Yankuam. Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster) ­ Two in Cajas NP and one near Valladolid. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps) ­ A single at Guango and a couple at Bellavista. Mottle-backed Elaenia (Elaenia gigas) ­ Common in the Yankuam, Shaime, Copalinga and Old Zamora Road areas. Highland Elaenia (Elaenia obscura) ­ A single at Cerro Toledo. Sierran Elaenia (Elaenia pallatangae) ­ Singles at Valladolid, Milpe, Paz de las Aves and Nanca Jatunmi. Torrent Tyrannulet (Serpophaga ciner) ­ Common along the Nangaritza River and also seen at Guango. Streak-necked Flycatcher (Mionectes striaticollis) ­ A couple seen at Tapichalaca. Generally at higher elevations than the next species. Olive-striped Flycatcher (Mionectes olivaceus) ­ A single near Valladolid, two at Shaime and one at San Isidro. Slaty-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon superciliaris) ­ Common along the Old Zamora Road and also seen on the Loreto Road and at Milpe. Rufous-breasted Flycatcher (Leptopogon rufipectus) ­ A single on the Guacamyos Ridge trail was very welcome. Variegated Bristle-Tyrant (Pogonotriccus poecilotis) Fairly common on the Guacamayos Ridge trail. Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant (Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus) ­ A single at an impromptu roadside stop between Manglares Churute and Cajas NP at around 1,500m. Spectacled Bristle-Tyrant (Pogonotriccus orbitalis) ­ A pair on the Old Zamora Road. Ecuadorian Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes gualaquizae) ­ A pair on the Old Zamora Road. Rufous-browed Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes superciliaris) ­ A single at Paquisha. This is a local speciality with a very limited Ecuadorian range. Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias plumbeiceps) ­ A single near Valladolid. Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Zimmerius chrysops) ­ Fairly common on the Old Zamora Road and another on the Loreto Road.

Ornate Flycatcher (Myiotriccus ornatus) ­ Fairly common at Shaime, Milpe, Paz de las Aves and Nanca Jatunmi with a single on the Loreto Road. Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant (Pseudotriccus pelzelni) ­ Singles at San Isidro and Bellavista. Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant (Pseudotriccus ruficeps) ­ Singles at Tapichalaca and Guacamayos. Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Euscarthmus meloryphus) ­ Common at Yunguilla. Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant (Lophotriccus pileatus) ­ Heard only at Paquisha and Bellavista. Black-throated Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus granadensis) ­ A single in the lodge garden at Tapichalaca where the species is regular. Rufous-crowned Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus ruficeps) ­ Singles at Yunguilla and Tapichalaca of the race peruvianus and a few around Guacamayos and San Isidro of the race ruficeps. Black-and-white Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus capitalis) ­ Brilliant views of this scarce species at Shaime. Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus latirostris) ­ A single at Yankuam. Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus calopterus) ­ A pair at Shaime. Common Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum cinerum) ­ Fairly common around Shaime, Yankuam, Old Zamora Road, Loreto Road and San Isidro areas. Zimmer's Flatbill (Tolmomyias assimilis) ­ A couple at Shaime. Clements lumps this form in Yellowmargined Flatbill. Cinnamon Flycatcher (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea) ­ Common and widespread. Cliff Flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea) A pair along the Loreto Road. Black-tailed Flycatcher (Myiobius atricaudus) ­ Very brief singles at Shaime and Yankuam. Flavescent Flycatcher (Myiophobus flavicans) ­ A single at Paz de las Aves. Orange-banded Flycatcher (Myiophobus lintoni) ­ A pair at Tapichalaca. Olive-chested Flycatcher (Myiophobus cryptoxanthus) ­ Seen at Paquisha and on the Old Zamora Road. Bran-coloured Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus) ­ Common at Yunguilla.

Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi) ­ A single at Shaime. This boreal migrant is of serious conservation concern. Smoke-coloured Pewee (Contopus fumigates) ­ Singles at Tapichalaca, Paquisha, Guacamayos and Bellavista. Western Wood-Pewee (Contopus sordidulus) ­ Eastern and Western Wood-Pewee are only safely separable in the field by voice however Western is by far the more common in Ecuador. Wood-Pewees were common at Shaime and at least some were confirmed as Western. Also recorded from Paquisha and the Loreto Road. Blackish Pewee (Contopus nigrescens) ­ A single at Yankuam, this is a scarce and hard to find species. Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans) ­ Common along the Nangaritza River and also seen along the Old Zamora Road and near Bellavista. Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) ­ Recorded at Manglares Churute, Yunguilla and Cumbaya. Rufous-tailed Tyrant (Knipolegus poecilurus) ­ A single at Cerro Toledo. Paramo Ground-Tyrant (Muscisaxicola alpine) ­ Fairly common at Antisana and a pair seen at a surprisingly low altitude at Papallacta. Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant (Agriornis Montana) ­ A few at Antisana and Papallacta. Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant (Myiotheretes striaticollis) ­ A single at Cerro Toledo. Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca diadema) ­ Singles at Cerro Toledo , Tapichalaca and heard at Guacamayos and Bellavista. Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca diadema) ­ A very responsive pair at Guango. Also heard only at Quebrada Honda and Guacamayos. Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca rufipectoralis) ­ Singles at Cerro Toledo and Papallacta. Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca fumicolor) ­ Fairly common in white elfin forest near Papallacta pass. Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus) ­ Common and conspicuous at Shaime, Yankuam and Paquisha. Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer) ­ A single at Cerro Toledo of the highland atriceps race. Also seen at Milpe and Nanca Jatunmi.

Pale-edged Flycatcher (Myiarchus cephalotes) ­ Easy to see at San Isidro where it feeds around the lights in the morning. Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) ­ Widespread and common at lower elevations. Golden-crowned Flycatcher (Myiodynastes chrysocephalus) ­ A pair on the Old Zamora Road and another pair at Bellavista. Baird's Flycatcher (Myiodynastes bairdii) ­ A single at Manglares Churute. Piratic Flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius) ­ A pair at Shaime. Snowy-throated Kingbird (Tyrannus niveigularis) ­ A couple roadside near Mindo. Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) ­ Common and widespread. Red-crested Cotinga (Ampelion rubrocristatus) ­ A couple at Cajas NP and one at Papallacta. Green-and-black Fruiteater (Pipreola riefferii) ­ A pair at Quebrada Honda, three at Guacamayos and a single at Bellavista. Barred Fruiteater (Pipreola arcuata) ­ Four in the Tapichalaca lodge and Quebrada Honda areas. Orange-breasted Fruiteater (Pipreola jucunda) ­ A single male and then a pair at Paz de las Aves. Black-chested Fruiteater (Pipreola lubomirskii) ­ Frequently heard at Guacamayos and San Isidro but stubbornly refused to show. Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana) ­ A couple at San Isidro, three males at the lek at Paz de las Aves and then five females on the Nono-Lindo road. Dusky Piha (Lipaugus fuscocinereus) ­ Heard at Tapichalaca, Guacamayos and San Isidro but a very hard bird to see. Grey-tailed Piha (Snowornis subalaris) ­ Heard on the Loreto Road. Olivaceous Piha (Snowornis cryptolophus) ­ A single at Paz de las Aves coming to a fruiting tree. Amazonian Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus ornatus) ­ A pair at Yankuam. Golden-winged Manakin (Masius chrysopterus) ­ A male at Milpe and a female at Paz de las Aves. White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus) ­ Common at Shaime and heard at Milpe. White-crowned Manakin (Pipra pipra) ­ Heard only along the Loreto Road.

Golden-headed Manakin (Pipra erythrocephala) ­ A couple of males at Shaime. Black-tailed Tityra (Tityra cayana) ­ Three by the road to Yankuam. Yellow-cheeked Becard (Pachyramphus xanthogenys) ­ A single in the large flock at Yankuam. Barred Becard (Pachyrhamphus versicolor) ­ A single near Valladolid, a pair on the Old Zamora Road and singles at Milpe and Nanca Jatunmi. Slaty Becard (Pachyramphus spodiurus) ­ A pair at Milpe were a surprise and quite a high elevation for this species. Cinnamon Becard (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus) ­ A single in a mixed flock at Nanca Jatunmi. Black-and-white Becard (Pachyramphus albogriseus) Females on the Old Zamora Road and at Milpe and a male at Paz de las Aves. One-coloured Becard (Pachyramphus homochrous) ­ A single near Milpe. Brown-capped Vireo (Vireo leucophrys) ­ Seen at Cerro Toledo and near Valladolid and then common in the Tandayapa/Mindo areas. Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) ­ Common in the Tandayapa/Mindo areas. Yellow-green Vireo (Vireo flavoviridis) ­ A single at Shaime. Olivaceous Greenlet (Hylophilus olivaceus) ­ Singles at Shaime and Guacamayos. Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus ochraceiceps) ­ A pair at Shaime. Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo (Vireolanius leucotis) ­ A single at Copalinga. Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis) ­ Seen at Yunguilla, Tapichalaca and Valladolid. Black-billed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis nigrirostris) ­ Singles at Guacamayos and San Isidro. Green Jay (Cyanocorax yncas) ­ A single on the Old Zamora Road and common at San Isidro. Violaceous Jay (Cyanocorax violaceus) ­ Common around Yankuam and also seen on the Loreto Road. White-tailed Jay (Cyanocorax mystacalis) ­ Heard only at Manglares Churute. Turquoise Jay (Cyanolyca turcosa) ­ A nice group at Tapichalaca and then two at Bellavista, also heard at Cajas NP and Guango.

Blue-and-white Swallow (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) ­ Widespread and common. Brown-bellied Swallow (Orochelidon murina) ­ Widespread and common at higher elevations. White-thighed Swallow (Atticora tibialis) ­ A flock of c. 20 at El Dorado provided an identification challenge (very similar to Southern Rough-winegd) but eventually this species was correctly chosen. White-banded Swallow (Atticora fasciata) ­ Common in the Yankuam and Shaime areas. Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) ­ Fairly common in the Yankuam, Shaime, Copalinga, Paquisha and Old Zamora Road areas. Grey-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea) ­ Common roadside near Manglares Churute. Fasciated Wren (Campyloryhnchus fasciatus) ­ Recorded near Villcabamba, and at Yangana, Loja and Catamayo. Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus) ­ One group seen by the road near Yankuam. Grey-mantled Wren (Odontorchilus branickii) ­ A single along the Old Zamora Road. Rufous Wren (Cinnycerthia unirufa) ­ Several parties at Cerro Toledo and Tapichalaca. Sharpe's Wren (Cinnycerthia olivascens) ­ One group at Tapichalaca. Plain-tailed Wren (Thryothorus euophrys) ­ Small parties at Cerro Toledo and Tapichalaca. Coraya Wren (Thryothorus coraya) ­ Three at Shaime. Superciliated Wren (Thryothorus superciliaris) ­ A pair at Catamayo. Southern House Wren (Troglodytes musculus) ­ Recorded from Yunguilla, Copalinga and near Milpe. Not recognized by Clements. Mountain Wren (Troglodytes solstitialis) ­ Seen at Tapichalaca and Papallacta. Grass Wren (Cistothorus polyglottus) ­ One seen at Cajas NP, also heard frequently at high elevations. Clements lumps this form in Sedge Wren. White-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucosticta) ­ One seen on the Loreto Road and also heard at Shaime. Grey-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) ­ Seen at Guacamyos and San Isidro and heard elsewhere.

Scaly-breasted Wren (Microcerculus marginatus) ­ Heard only at Shaime but not really looked for. Chestnut-breasted Wren (Cyphorhinus thoracicus) ­ Brief glimpses of one on the Guacamayos Ridge trail. White-capped Dipper (Cinclus leucocephalus) ­ Seen along the Old Zamora Road and Rio Guango. White-browed Gnatcatcher (Polioptila bilineata) ­ Common at Catamayo. Clements lumps this form In Tropical Gnatcatcher. Andean Solitaire (Myadestes ralloides) ­ A couple at Paz de las Aves and a single at Mindo Loma. Heard at Guacamayos and Bellavista. Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus fuscater) ­ Another heard only at Guacamayos. Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus) ­ Fairly common at Shaime, Yankuam, San Isidro, Bellavista and Paz de las Aves. Pale-eyed Thrush (Turdus leucops) ­ One in a mixed flock at San Isidro. Plumbeous-backed Thrush (Turdus reevei) ­ Four seen roadside on the way to Cajas NP at c. 1,500m. Pale-vented Thrush (Turdus obsoletus) ­ Heard only at Milpe. Ecuadorian Thrush (Turdus maculirostris) ­ A single at Paz de las Aves. Clements lumps this form in Spectacled Thrush. Black-billed Thrush (Turdus ignobilis) ­ Numerous around Shaime, Yankuam, Copalinga and the Old Zamora Road. Maranon Thrush (Turdus maranonicus) ­ One in Valladolid. Chesnut-bellied Thrush (Turdus fulviventris) ­ Heard only at Guacamayos. Great Thrush (Turdus fuscater) ­ Widespread and very common above 2,500m although lower in Loja province. Chiguanco Thrush (Turdus chiguanco) ­ A couple seen roadside near Cuenca. Glossy-black Thrush (Turdus serranus) ­ A single at Tapichalaca and very common around Guacamayos and San Isidro. Also recorded from Bellavista. Long-tailed Mockingbird (Mimus longicaudatus) Common near Villcabamba and at Catamayo.

Paramo Pipit (Anthus bogotensis) ­ About six at Antisana. Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi) ­ Scattered records at lower elevations. Yellow Warbler (Dendroica aestiva) ­ A single at Yunguilla was a major surprise and probably a transient. Note Clements does not separate this form from Mangrove Warbler. Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca) ­ A widespread and common flock member. Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) ­ Recorded at Yankuam and along the Old Zamora Road. Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulean) ­ Singles near Valladolid and along the Loreto Road were very welcome. Another boreal migrant of conservation concern. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) ­ A major surprise was one in a flock along the Loreto Road. Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis) ­ Fairly common at Shaime, Yankuam, Old Zamora Road, Guacamayos, Loreto Road and San Isidro. Slate-throated Whitestart (Myioborus miniatus) ­ Common and widespread. Spectacled Whitestart (Myioborus melanocephalus) ­ The high altitude counterpart of the preceding species and thus seen only at Tapichalaca, Papallacta and the top of Bellavista. Choco Warbler (Basieuterus chlorophrys) ­ A pair with a recently fledged youngster at Milpe. Clements lumps this form in Golden-bellied Warbler. Citrine Warbler (Basileuterus luteoviridis) ­ A couple near Valladolid. Black-crested Warbler (Basileuterus nigrocristatus) ­ Recorded from Cajas, roadside between Cuenca and Loja, Tapichalaca and Guango. Russet-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus coronatus) ­ Recorded at Yunguilla, Tapichalaca, Guango, Guacamayos, San Isidro and Bellavista. Three-striped Warbler (Basileuterus tristriatus) ­ A few at Tapichalaca and common in the Mindo/Tandayapa area. Buff-rumped Warbler (Phaeothlypis fulvicauda) ­ Very common along the Nangaritza River and at Shaime. Also a single at Milpe. This species is generally tied to water courses. Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) ­ Widespread and common at lower elevations.

Black-faced Tanager (Schistochlamys melanopis) ­ A single and then a pair in the lower part of Tapichalaca. Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana) ­ One along the Old Zamora Road and a pair at Copalinga. White-capped Tanager (Sericossypha albocristata) ­ Heard frequently at Tapichalaca with one pair seen very well, also briefly encountered at San Isidro. Rufous-crested Tanager (Creurgops verticalis) ­ A couple of birds at Guacamayos and San Isidro. Black-capped Hemispingus (Hemispingus atropileus) ­ Small groups at Tapichalaca, Papallacta and Guacamayos. Black-eared Hemispingus (Hemispingus melanotis) ­ A single at Bermeja (near San isidro). Black-headed Hemispingus (Hemispingus verticalis) ­ A single by the road between Cuenca and Loja. Grey-hooded Bush-Tanager (Cnemoscopus rubrirostris) ­ Fairly common at Cerro Toledo, Tapichalaca and Guango. Rufous-chested Tanager (Thlypopsis ornate) ­ Small numbers at Cajas NP, Yunguilla, Cerro Toledo, near Valladolid and at Tony's. Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum) ­ A pair on the Old Zamora Road. This species is rare and very localized in Ecuador and the Zamora area probably offers the best opportunity. Cinereous Conebill (Conirostrum cinereum) ­ A few between Cuenca and Loja and at Antisana and Papallacta. Blue-backed Conebill (Conirostrum sitticolor) ­ Recorded at Cajas NP, Cerro Toledo and Papallacta. Capped Conebill (Conirostrum albifrons) ­ Singles at Cerro Toledo and Bellavista. Giant Conebill (Oreomanes fraseri) ­ A small and approachable party in Polylepis in Cajas NP. Tit-like Dacnis (Xenodacnis parina) ­ Only known from a couple of places in Ecuador it is fortunately easy to see in Polylepis in Cajas NP. Black-backed Bush-Tanager (Urothraupis stolzmanni) ­ The core species of the Masked MountainTanager flock in the highest forest above Papallacta spa resort. Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus) ­ Recorded near Valladolid, Paquisha, Old Zamora Road, Guacamayos and San Isidro.

Dusky Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus semifuscus) ­ Common in the Mindo/Tandayapa areas. Short-billed Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus parvirostris) ­ A single at Guacamayos; also known as Yellowwhiskered Bush-Tanager. Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus flavigularis) A couple on the Loreto Raod and a pair at Milpe. Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus canigularis) ­ A couple at Paquisha and on the Old Zamora Road. Guira Tanager (Hemithraupis guira) ­ Fairly common on the Old Zamora Road. Ochre-breasted Tanager (Chlorothraupis stolzmanni) ­ A single at Milpe. Fulvous-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus surinamus) ­ A pair in the large flock at Yankuam. White-lined Tanager (Tachyphonus rufus) ­ Fairly common at Paquisha, Copalinga and the Old Zamora Road and a single at Bellavista. Highland Hepatic Tanager (Piranga lutea) ­ A single in Yangana. Clements does not recognize this form. Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra) ­ Scattered records from Tapichalaca, Yankuam, Old Zamora Road and Bellavista. Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea) ­ A couple of records from Shaime and Old Zamora Road. White-winged Tanager (Piranga olivacea) ­ A single male at Paquisha and a pair at Nanca Jatunmi. Red-hooded Tanager (Piranga rubriceps) ­ Four in a mixed flock in Quebrada Honda, this is a scarce and infrequently encountered species for which Quebrada Honda is a regular site. Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo) ­ Very common at lower elevations around Shaime, Yankuam, Copalinga, Paquisha, Old Zamora Road and Loreto Road. Lemon-rumped Tanager (Ramphocelus icteronotus) ­ A common bird at Milpe and in the Mindo area. Blue-grey Tanager (Thraupis episcopus) ­ Common and widespread. Both the duller, plain-winged quaesita and brighter, white wing-patched coelestis races encountered. Interestingly the two races occur sympatrically in Yangana, possibly suggesting that more than one species may be involved. Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum) ­ Fairly common at lower elevations. Blue-capped Tanager (Thraupis cyanocephala) ­ Fairly common at Tapichalaca and Valladolid.

Vermilion Tanager (Calochaetes coccineus) ­ A single male in the Blue-browed Tanager flock on the Old Zamora Road. Orange-throated Tanager (Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron) ­ Probably five birds seen well at Shaime. Until recently thought to be a Peruvian endemic it is now known from the lower slopes of the Cordillera del Condor and Shaime is by far the easiest place in the world to look for them. Birds can be encountered anywhere (even in the village) but the forests near to the Oilbird cave are the best area. Hooded Mountain-Tanager (Buthraupis montana) ­ Fairly common at Tapichalaca, Guango and Guacamayos. Black-chested Mountain-Tanager (Buthraupis eximia) ­ Three at Cerro Toledo. Masked Mountain-Tanager (Buthraupis wetmorei) A pair in the flock in the highest forest above Papallacta spa resort. This is probably the easiest site in Ecuador at least to see this species but mornings are fairly essential. Also occurs at Cerro Toledo but the weather was bad at the treeline whilst I was there. Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (Anisognathus lacrymosus) ­ Common at Tapichalaca, Guango and Guacamayos. Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (Anisognathus igniventris) ­ One seen between Cuenca and Loja. Also heard at Tapichalaca and Papallacta. Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager (Anisognathus somptuosus) ­ A few at Tapichalaca and then common in the Guacamayos/San Isidro and Tandayapa/Mindo areas. Grass-green Tanager (Chlorornis riefferii) ­ A few at Tapichalaca and then a pair nest-building on the Guacamayos Ridge trail. The eggs of this species are currently undescribed. Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Dubusia taeniata) ­ A couple seen at Tapichalaca and also heard at Papallacta. Yellow-throated Tanager (Iridosornis analis) ­ A pair in the large flock at Yankuam. Golden-crowned Tanager (Iridosornis rufivertex) Common in the higher parts of Cerro Toledo. Fawn-breasted Tanager (Pipraeidea melanonota) Singles at Paquisha and Mindo Loma, and pairs at San Isidro and Nanca Jatunmi. Orange-eared Tanager (Chlorochrysa calliparaea) ­ A couple at Paquisha and singles on the Old Zamora Road and at Guacamayos.

Turquoise Tanager (Tangara mexicana) ­ A single at Shaime. Paradise Tanager (Tangara chilensis) ­ Common at Shaime, Yankuam, Paquisha and Old Zamora Road. Green-and-gold Tanager (Tangara schrankii) ­ Fairly common at Shaime, Yankuam, Paquisha, Copalinga and the Old Zamora Road. There was an active nest right outside my cabin at Copalinga. Golden Tanager (Tangara arthus) ­ A large flock roadside on the way to Cajas NP and also recorded along the Old Zamora Road. Fairly common in the Mindo/Tandayapa areas. Saffron-crowned Tanager (Tangara xanthocephala) ­ A few at Valladolid and then common at Guacamayos and San Isidro. Golden-eared Tanager (Tangara chrysotis) ­ A couple near Valladolid and then three on the Old Zamora Road. Flame-faced Tanager (Tangara parzudakii) ­ A single on the way to Cajas NP and then small numbers in the Tandayapa/Mindo areas. Fairly common around Guacamayos and San Isidro. Race lunigera at the former sites and parzudakii at the latter. Yellow-bellied Tanager (Tangara xanthogastra) ­ A single at Shaime. Spotted Tanager (Tangara punctata) ­ A single at Paquisha, fairly common on the Old Zamora Road and two on the Loreto Road. Bay-headed Tanager (Tangara gyrola) ­ Fairly common at Shaime and Yankuam and also seen on the Loreto Road. Golden-naped Tanager (Tangara ruficervix) ­ A couple each near Valladolid and on the Old Zamora Road and then small numbers in the Tandayapa/Mindo area. Blue-browed Tanager (Tangara cyanotis) ­ A pair on the Old Zamora Road after a long search. Boris also saw one in Quebrada Honda. This is a scarce species in Ecuador. Blue-necked Tanager (Tangara cyanicollis) ­ Common in foothill and subtropical forest. Metallic-green Tanager (Tangara labradorides) ­ A single at Bellavista. Masked Tanager (Tangara nigrocincta) ­ A couple at Yankuam. Beryl-spangled Tanager (Tangara nigroviridis) ­ Recorded from Tapichalaca, Mindo/Tandayapa areas and Guacamayos/San Isidro areas where the birds looked strangely pale and washed out.

Blue-and-black Tanager (Tangara vassorii) ­ Very common at Tapichalaca and also recorded at Papallacta, Guango, Guacamayos and Bellavista. Black-capped Tanager (Tangara heinei) ­ Three on the lower slopes of Guacamayos, Boris also saw one at San Isidro. Silvery Tanager (Tangara viridicollis) ­ Common near Valladolid. Opal-rumped Tanager (Tangara velia) ­ Two at Shaime. Black-faced Dacnis (Dacnis lineata) ­ Small numbers at Shaime and Yankuam. Yellow-bellied Dacnis (Dacnis flaviventer) ­ A pair in El Dorado. Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana) ­ A couple at Shaime. Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza) ­ Singles at Shaime and Yankuam. Purple Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes caeruleus) ­ Three at Shaime and one at Yankuam. Swallow-Tanager (Tersina viridis) ­ Three on the road to Yankuam, and singles at Shaime and near Milpe. Plumbeous Sierra-Finch (Phrygilus unicolor) ­ Common at Cajas NP, Antisana and Papallacta. Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch (Phrygilus plebejus) ­ One at Catamayo. Collared Warbling-Finch (Poospiza hispaniolensis) ­ A couple at Catamayo. Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina) ­ Fairly common around Copalinga and Zamora. Variable Seedeater (Sporophila corvina) ­ Fairly common around Milpe and near Nanca Jatunmi. Black-and-white Seedeater (Sporophila luctuasa) ­ Very common around Shaime and Yankuam. Yellow-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila nigricollis) ­ Common around Valladolid, Shaime, Yankuam and Zamora. Also three at Paz de las Aves. Parrot-billed Seedeater (Sporophila peruviana) ­ A few by the road near Manglares Churute. Drab Seedeater (Sporophila simplex) ­ A pair at Catamayo. Chestnut-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila castaneiventris) ­ Common around Shaime and Yankuam.

Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch (Oryzoborus angolensis) ­ Common around Shaime and Yankuam and also recorded on the Loreto Road. Black-billed Seed-Finch (Oryzoborus atrirostris) ­ A male near El Dorado and five at Shaime, this is a local speciality. Band-tailed Seedeater (Catamenia analis) ­ Fairly common at Cajas NP, Antisana and Papallacta. Plain-tailed Seedeater (Catamenia inornata) ­ Small numbers at Cerro Toledo and Papallacta. Paramo Seedeater (Catamenia homochroa) ­ A pair and then a male at Tapichalaca. This is a scarce and localized species in Ecuador. Yellow-faced Grassquit (Tiaris olivacea) ­ A couple near Nanca Jatunmi. Dull-coloured Grassquit (Tiaris obscura) ­ Fairly common at Yunguilla. Glossy Flowerpiercer (Diglossa lafresnayii) ­ Common at Cerro Toledo and also seen at Papallacta. Black Flowerpiercer (Diglossa humeralis) ­ Small numbers at Cajas NP, Cerro Toledo and Papallacta. White-sided Flowerpiercer (Diglossa albilatera) ­ A couple at Cerro Toledo. Bluish Flowerpiercer (Diglossa caerulescens) ­ A couple at Guacamayos and San Isidro. Masked Flowerpiercer (Diglossa cyanea) ­ Common at Tapichalaca, Guango and Bellavista and comes to the hummingbird feeders at all of these. Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola) ­ A small flock in the hostal grounds near Giron. Pale-naped Brush-Finch (Atlapetes pallidinucha) ­ Common at Cerro Toledo and also seen at Tapichalaca. Choco Brush-Finch (Atlapetes crassus) ­ A pair at Bellavista. This form is lumped in Tricoloured BrushFinch by Clements and I have also seen it referred to as Dusky Brush-Finch in other trip reports. Slaty Brush-Finch (Atlapetes schistaceus) ­ Fairly common at Guango where it is a local speciality. White-winged Brush-Finch (Atlapetes leucopterus) ­ A couple at Lake Llaviucu in Cajas NP and two at Tony's. Pale-headed Brush-Finch (Atlapetes pallidiceps) ­ At least four of this critically endangered endemic seen well at Yunguilla, essentially the only place in the world to see it.

Yellow-breasted Brush-Finch (Atlapetes latinuchus) ­ Small numbers between Cuenca and Loja and at Cerro Toledo and Tapichalaca. The species is called Rufous-naped Brush-Finch in the Birds of Ecuador. Olive Finch (Arremon castaneiceps) ­ Singles seen very briefly along the Old Zamora Road and the Guacamayos Ridge trail. In both cases the birds responded very fast to playback but immediately disappeared into dense cover. Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch (Arremon brunneinucha) ­ Singles at Bellavista and Tony's. Orange-billed Sparrow (Arremon aurantiitostris) ­ A couple on the fruit feeders at Milpe. Stripe-headed Brush-Finch (Arremon torquatus) ­ A pair at Yunguilla were a bit of a surprise. Tumbes Sparrow (Aimophila stolzmanni) ­ A couple at Catamayo. Yellow-browed Sparrow (Ammodramus aurifrons) ­ Commonly recorded at lower elevations in the east. Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) ­ Ubiquitous except at lower elevations. Greyish Saltator (Saltator coerulescens) ­ A couple at Shaime. Buff-throated Saltator (Saltator maximus) ­ A single near Milpe. Black-winged Saltator (Saltator atripennis) ­ A pair at Paz de las Aves. Slate-coloured Grosbeak (Saltator grossus) ­ A single at Shaime. Golden-bellied Grosbeak (Pheucticus chrysogaster) ­ Recorded from Manglares Churute, Yunguilla, near Quito and at Bellavista. Referred to as Southern Yellow Grosbeak in the Birds of Ecuador. Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) ­ Three at Bellavista were very welcome. Peruvian Meadowlark (Sturnella bellicosa) ­ A single at Manglares Churute. Scrub Blackbird (Dives warszewiczi) ­ Fairly common at lower elevations in the south. Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) ­ A couple by the road near Manglares Churute. Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) ­ Only seen near Manglares Churute. Giant Cowbird (Molothrus oryzivorus) ­ A couple by the road near Manglares Churute. Moriche Oriole (Icterus chrysocephalus) ­ A single at Yankuam. Clements lumps this form in Epaulet Oriole.

Orange-backed Troupial (Icterus croconotus) ­ A single in flight over the road to Yankuam. Northern Mountain-Cacique (Cacicus leucoramphus) ­ Small numbers at Tapichalaca and Guango and then common in the Guacamayos and San Isidro areas. Subtropical Cacique (Cacicus uropygialis) ­ Small numbers at San Isidro and also heard at Copalinga. Clements lumps the form in Scarlet-rumped Cacique. Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela) ­ A single at Manglares Churute and then common around Yankuam. Russet-backed Oropendola (Psarocolius angustifrons) ­ Odd ones around Shaime and Yankuam and common in the Guacamayos and San Isidro areas. Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus) ­ Common around Yankuam, Shaime and Copalinga. Thick-billed Euphonia (Euphonia laniirostris) ­ A couple coming to bananas at Copalinga. Golden-rumped Euphonia (Euphonia cyanocephala) ­ A single at Yunguilla was the only record. Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster) ­ Fairly common and widespread. White-lored Euphonia (Euphonia chrysopasta) ­ A couple at Shaime. Bronze-green Euphonia (Euphonia mesochrysa) ­ Just a single at Copalinga. White-vented Euphonia (Euphonia minuta) ­ A pair at Shaime. Blue-naped Chlorophonia (Chlorophonia cyanea) ­ A single female on the Loreto Road. Chestnut-breasted Chlorophonia (Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys) ­ At least two pairs at San Isidro including one pair that showed very well right by the lodge. Yellow-bellied Siskin (Carduelis xanthogastra) ­ A pair of this scarce species was most welcome by the road near Milpe. Hooded Siskin (Carduelis magellanica) ­ A single in Cajas NP and then very common at Antisana. Saffron Siskin (Carduelis siemiradzkii) ­ A couple by the road on the way to Cajas NP was an unexpected bonus. Olivaceous Siskin (Carduelis olivacea) Small parties in Valladolid and along the Loreto road. House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) ­ A few on the way out of Guayaquil.

Mammals

As is typical in South America mammals were rather inconspicuous but the following were recorded. Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata) ­ Heard calling at Manglares Churute. Amazon Dwarf Squirrel (Microsciurus flaviventer) ­ A single at San Isidro. Southern Amazon Red Squirrel (Sciurus spadiceus) ­ Singles at Tapichalaca and Paz de las Aves. Black Agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa) ­ A single in the road down from Bellavista to Milpe. Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) ­ A single seen swimming in the Nangaritza River before scrambling up the bank to escpae the boat. Brazilian Rabbit (Sylvilagus brasiliensis) ­ Common above the treeline at Cajas NP, Antisana and Papallacta. Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu) ­ A pair in the undergrowth along the Old Zamora Road were more smelt than seen.


Leave your comment

Your name:


Comment:


Enter number:


WhatsApp: +7-701-744-61-28
Facebook-community
E-mail: info@endemicbirds.com
Home page About us Ecuador Paradise Upper West Foothills and Lowlands Masterful Northern Ecuador Extra: Antisana Day trip! Majestic Cotopaxi Volcano Culture and Birding Otavalo Ecuador Jewel Forest Southern Ecuador Choco Specialist Peru Wild Iquitos Legendary Central Peru Masterful Endemic North Peru Kazakhstan Non-birding tours Kazakhstan – Magic of nature Tour «Express» Ecuador & Galapagos Islands (10 days) Trip Reports 26th October ­— 28th November, 2009 Ecuador 2009 – Birds and Spanish - With Peru - 26th
Contact

WhatsApp: +7-701-744-61-28

E-mail: info@endemicbirds.com

Facebook: fb.com/endemicbirdstours

Instagram: @endemic_birds_tours

This site was made by
Daniel Yoll's web-studio